A groundbreaking peer reviewed case report by Dr. Isaac Eliaz, M.D. of Amitabha Medical Clinic, demonstrates for the first time the clinical use of novel biomarker galectin-3 to assess cancer progression and inflammation. The case study titled, “The Role of Galectin-3 as a Marker of Cancer and Inflammation in a Stage IV Ovarian Cancer Patient with Underlying Pro-Inflammatory Comorbidities,” was published in the July 2013 issue of Case Reports in Oncology. This report is the first of its kind to expand the diagnostic and prognostic applications of the galectin-3 blood serum test, introducing an important clinical tool to assess risk and progression of metastatic cancer and inflammatory diseases.
In 2011, the galectin-3 blood test was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the screening and prognosis of congestive heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Approval was granted after an extensive body of published data, including long-term population studies, demonstrated the active role of elevated galectin-3 in cardiovascular conditions, fibrosis and early mortality. However, a rapidly expanding field of published galectin-3 research also highlights the significance of this rogue molecule as a novel biomarker that is both an active culprit as well as a byproduct of numerous inflammatory and malignant cellular processes beyond cardiovascular disease.
An expert on galectin-3, Dr. Eliaz applies the data obtained in this case study to shed further light on excess galectin-3's mechanisms of action, specifically inflammatory response to injury and cancer progression. In this report, Dr. Eliaz presents the first published case documenting the clinical use of galectin-3 to monitor cancer progression and treatment response, as well as inflammatory conditions. These findings point to an expanded clinical model using galectin-3 testing in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of numerous chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Unlike biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), which only indicate the presence of inflammation, galactin-3 is shown to play a direct role in initiating disease progression. It is a protein normally present in the body at low concentrations, where it is involved in numerous functions including cell growth and communication. At elevated levels, however, galectin-3 fuels numerous pathologic processes including chronic inflammation and the progression of inflammation to fibrosis; cancer cell adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Elevated galectin-3 also allows cancer cells to evade immune response. Research demonstrates elevated galectin-3 levels in patients with melanoma, lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, and head and neck cancers as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and others. Galectin-3 levels are also found to be higher in patients with metastatic disease than in patients with localized tumors.
Dr. Eliaz states, “This new case report and significant clinical observation supports the need for further research on the role of galectin-3. The galectin-3 test could well become one of our most important clinical tools in assessing and monitoring a wide range of conditions beyond cardiovascular disease, including metastatic cancer and inflammatory conditions.”